Flow sheet and components of a stationary incineration plant
Stationary incineration plants
Mid-sized incineration plants as an example of a sustainable investment
Download the technical data sheets of the combustion furnace, the flue gas cooler and the filter system as PDF file
1) Combustion furnace
The heart of every plant is of course the combustion chamber, with its grate and combustion system philosophy.
For this, all parameters of the combustible material are taken into account, as well as the question of sustainability in dealing with the waste.
Our combustion furnace has a two-chamber ceiling loading system consisting of a manual or optionally automatic chamber opening, together with a driven slide system to separate the combustion chamber.
Two burner systems are used to heat up the system and to support the firing at low calorific values of the waste. One burner system for the main combustion chamber and one burner system for the afterburner chamber. This is divided into two chambers.
Depending on the setting, the combustion chamber temperature is 850 - 950 °C in the main combustion chamber and 950 - 1150 °C in the afterburner chambers. The firing temperatures are automatically controlled according to local specifications. An emergency system (pressure and temperature dependent) is available.
The ventilation of the main chamber is on the front side and is adapted to the patented combustion grate system.
In the past, we have used old-fashioned technology that reliably fulfilled its tasks, but reached its limits in the area of wear and tear and also in maintenance. We took a closer look at these problems and created a new type of combustion grate that is easy to maintain and favourable in its manufacture and replacement, as combustion gratings are wearing parts.
The afterburner chambers are ventilated on the side. Ventilation is provided by one or more combustion air fans, the control of which is regulated by corresponding oxygen measurements to ensure sufficient oxygen enrichment and thus complete combustion.
The system contains 2 sight glasses into the combustion chamber as well as numerous connections and connection possibilities for necessary and additional measuring instruments.
The ash is removed manually via 3 large ash removal doors or optionally via an automatic wet ash removal system (8).
There is no uniform solution, but only adaptable technical solutions in general. Each plant is therefore designed to meet the specific requirements and of course the highest environmental standards. We have a wide range of solutions available for this purpose.
Chimneys of a plant
2) Emergency chimney
The emergency chimney contains a ventilation and non-return flap as well as 2 measuring points which can either be optionally equipped with measuring instruments or used for own purposes. The chimney can be insulated on the outside.
4) Cooling air chimney
The cooling air chimney contains a ventilation and non-return flap as well as 2 measuring points which can either be optionally equipped with measuring instruments or used for own purposes. The chimney can be insulated on the outside. Depending on the operating conditions and use of the cooling air, which can also be used for heat recovery, it may be necessary to equip the system with an additional chimney cooling air fan to mix cold ambient air into the clean hot cooling air. Therefore, a connection of this optional system via the non-return flap is provided.
7) Main (clean gas) chimney
The main stack contains 6 measuring points which can either be optionally occupied with measuring instruments, for example for continuous emission measurement, or used for own purposes. The chimney can be insulated on the outside.
All chimneys are offered in a standard construction height of 6 m, with the possibility of an extension to 9 or 12 m. Other heights as special design.
Materials: Depending on the media. Carbon and stainless steel of various classes.
Construction height: 6, 9, and 12 m. Others on request.
Diameter: 356, 508, 559 mm. Others on request.
Wall thicknesses: Determined by design
Gas measuring connection: Up to 6 pieces
Insulation: External insulation possible
3) Flue gas cooler
In the past, we have also for the flue gas coolers and heat exchangers used old-fashioned technology that reliably fulfilled its tasks, but reached its limits in the area of wear and tear and also in maintenance. In the same order as we did with the combustion grate system we took a closer look at these problems and created a new type of flue gas cooler that is very easy to maintain.
But easy to maintain is not the only target what we had focused on. The new design is long resistant against heat, abration and acids which is naturally dependent on selected materials.
Since the cooling circuit is shielded from the flue gas and the heat and thus energy transfer to the cooling air is due to the engineering enormous, it is nearly inevitable that this cooling air can be used further and thus the efficiency of a plant can be increased. Of course also the efficiency of an older, existing plant can be increased.
The design of the new cooler and the way it is implemented is both logical and consequent. The cooler design is an air/air cooler. In the design, the flue gas and cooling air side are considered as independent systems.
One system, the flue gas side, must be resistant to heat, abrasion and corrosion and the other, the clean cooling air side, to sometimes enormous temperatures, depending on the design of the plant. We have also constructively implemented the thermal, mechanical problems that arise on the cooling air side. Of course, the flue gas pipes are still exposed to a great deal of stress and their durability can be increased by using special steels, but they are still nothing more than wearing parts from a classical point of view. If you take this problem into account, then you inevitably have to create a simple maintenance option, which we have implemented in our cooler.
The entire rear chamber part can be easily removed and the tube bundles can be replaced just as easily on their sliding frame. This significantly reduces downtime and keeps maintenance costs to a minimum.
The temperature ranges for the flue gas side are, depending on the design of the upstream plant, between 850 - 1200 °C and the cooling air side between 300 - 650 °C. Deviations are of course possible depending on the individual design of each plant.
Advantages of the new and patented cooler design
- Easy to maintain.
- Long resistant against heat.
- Long resistant against acids.
- Long resistant against abration.
- Heat recovery via clean cooling air possible.
- No material attack of the secondary air cooling circuit by aggressive media.
- Long service life.
4) Cooling air chimney
See above chapter "Chimneys of a plant"
5) Dry-scrubbing-solvent system
A dry-scrubbing-solvent injection by means of a dosing station is used to remove particles and gases from the exhaust gas streams via dusted air filters.
These dry scrubbing systems are used to remove corrosive and toxic gases (for example SO2 and HCl) from the exhaust gas. They are very effective with low investment and operating costs.
Many acid gases, such as ammonia and hydrogen chloride are water soluble and react aggressively when moisture is added to the gas.
Dry gas scrubbers add either no or very little liquid to the exhaust gas they are cleaning. This means that they are less prone to corrosion. This means that they do not require waste water disposal procedures or steam plumes - common scrubber accessories.
The dry gas scrubber simply injects a sorbent that efficiently captures and absorbs acid gases.
Odorous, corrosive gas by-products can be additionally removed from the exhaust gas by adding activated compounds that treat certain pollutants. Once it has absorbed all harmful compounds, it is removed from the filter elements together with excess sorbent by a control device.
Dry scrubbing systems are an important part of gas phase filtration and are therefore best suited for maintaining high environmental standards.
For such systems several standard suppliers can be used optionally.
6) Filter system
There are two ways to filter the exhaust gas.
On the one hand there is the wet and dry washing technology and on the other hand the electrostatic filter technology.
For our systems we mainly use the dry washing technology.
For our dry washing technology we can offer ceramic filters and fabric filters.
We prefer ceramic filters for our furnaces up to 400 kg/h, as these have a very high filter efficiency on the one hand and a very long service life on the other.
Which of these both filter technologies is suitable is mainly a question of the amount of exhaust gas and the media itself.
The filter units are of modular design.
Several modules can thus form a filter system.
By default, these are made up of 1-2-3 and 4 modules and so on.
The design of a plant is based on its operating data.
For our dry-washing systems we additionally recommend to use a dry-scrubbing-solvent injection system.
These dry scrubbing systems are used to remove corrosive and toxic gases (for example SO2 and HCl) from the exhaust gas.
They are very effective with low investment and operating costs.
More information bellow.
The temperature range for the dry-scrubbing solvent should be from 170°C up to 300°C.
In this range the dry-scrubbing solvent can transfer the contents.
Flue gas mixed with dry-scrubbing solvent create a layer on outside surface of the filter and accumulate during operation.
The dust layer causes a pressure drop and a differential pressure measurement indicate necessary cleaning steps.
At a certain differential pressure level the filter will be cleaned by pressure air with a reverse jet cleaning system which clean the filter by a jet impulse and the dust layer on the outside surface of the filter will fall down.
At the bottom of the filter the ash feed by a rotary valve to a big bag or ash container.
The insulation at the outside of filter body keeps it from corrosion, during shut down periods.
The dust inside is contaminated with sulpher and other components.
If the temperature falls below the dew point, corrosion could be happen.
Therfor a standstill heater is additionally recommended to protect the housing from corrosion.
This heater is only an option, because if it is necessary depends allways only on local conditions.
The filter can easily removed when necessary.
It can be replaced by operation staff after training.
7) Main (clean gas) chimney
See above chapter "Chimneys of a plant"
8) De-Ashing system
The ash is removed manually via 3 large ash removal doors or optionally via an automatic wet ash removal system.
The burnt-out ash falls behind the last grate zone through a foreseen ash shaft into the water bath of the wet de-asher and is cooled down there.
From the de-asher bath the material will be transported via a scraper conveyor to a collecting container or other requested system.
For this purpose, several standard suppliers can be used.
Other ash removal systems, such as dry ash removal systems, are of course also available, whereby the wet ash removal systems have proven themselves.
For the use of an ash removal system, the plant must be jacked up according to the ash removal system height.
All necessary components are optionally available.
9) Control cabinet
The control cabinet of a plant is a complex system that always has to be adapted to each individual plant, as the requirements and designs of a plant correspond to local needs.
It also includes the logical, i.e. software solution for each individual plant.
Therefore this item is always considered as an independent component.
The design of a control cabinet includes everything that belongs to it.
The control panel is fitted to the control cabinet door with necessary keys and/or touch screens for operation.
The control panel can also be supplied remotely as a separate "key" panel, or as a PC solution.
10) Continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS)
CEMS are used as a tool to monitor flue gas for oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to provide information for combustion control in industrial settings.
They are currently used as a means to comply with air emission standards.
Facilities employ the use of CEMS to continuously collect, record and report the required emissions data, that could be for example:
CO (carbon monoxide),
NOx (nitrogen oxides),
SO2 (sulfur oxide),
HCl (hydrogen chloride),
CO2 (carbon dioxide),
H2O (water),O2 (oxygen),
TOC (total organic carbon).
Please note that each system requires an individual configuration.
Therefore, examples cannot be used for planning purposes, but only serve as rough information.
We always calculate your system individually according to your specifications and requirements.