Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless and completely non-toxic gas. Its specific gravity is only 0.0899 g/l. Hydrogen boils at - 252.77 degrees Celsius. Liquid hydrogen has a specific gravity of 70.99 g/l. At a temperature of 15°C and a pressure of 350 bar, the density of hydrogen is about 24 kg/m³.
Green hydrogen is produced by the electrolysis of water. Electricity from renewable energy sources is used in the process. Green hydrogen is therefore CO2-free.
Gray hydrogen is produced by steam reforming mostly from fossil natural gas.
Green hydrogen is important for reducing CO2 emissions in industry. A wide variety of processes in the chemical industry can be made climate-friendly with green hydrogen.
Gas reduction plants for hydrogen are similar in design to gas reduction plants for other gases such as natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, but there are some special features to consider when handling hydrogen.
Special requirements for gas reduction stations and fittings
Gas reduction stations for hydrogen are similar in design to gas reduction stations for other gases such as natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, but there are some special features to consider when handling hydrogen.
One of the main problems in handling hydrogen is its high flow rates, which occur due to the low density of the gas. Therefore, gas reduction stations for hydrogen must be equipped with special valves and regulators capable of handling the high flow velocities and reducing the pressure of the gas to the level that can be tolerated by the gas turbine or other consumers.
Another challenge in handling hydrogen is its chemical reactivity, especially at high pressures and temperatures. Therefore, gas reduction stations for hydrogen must be made of corrosion-resistant materials to ensure that they are resistant to hydrogen and other chemical compounds that may be formed when hydrogen is burned.
Materials resistant to hydrogen and other chemical compounds that may be formed during the combustion of hydrogen are used for hydrogen fittings.
The choice of material depends on the type of application, the pressure and temperature of the hydrogen, and other specific requirements.
Materials for hydrogen fittings
Stainless steel components
Stainless steel is a popular choice for hydrogen fittings due to its corrosion resistance and strength. However, it is important to note that some types of stainless steel are not suitable for applications with high hydrogen pressures or temperatures due to hydrogen embrittlement.
Titanium is a lightweight, corrosion-resistant material that can be used at high temperatures and pressures. It is also resistant to hydrogen embrittlement, making it a good choice for hydrogen fittings in demanding applications.
Sealing with polymer materials
Polymer materials such as PTFE and PEEK can be used as seals or O-rings in certain applications. They are resistant to hydrogen and provide a good seal at high temperatures.
It is important to select the right material for hydrogen fittings to ensure the safety and reliability of the system. In many cases, hydrogen fittings are made from a combination of different materials to meet the requirements of the specific application.
Safety is also an important consideration in the design of gas reduction stations for hydrogen. Hydrogen is a highly explosive gas and therefore requires special safety measures during handling and storage. Gas reduction stations for hydrogen must be equipped with safety valves, leakage detectors and other safety devices to prevent accidents.
The requirements for gas reduction stations for hydrogen can vary depending on the application and fuel cell, but in general they are of great importance for the operation of hydrogen-based gas turbines and other hydrogen applications.